by Tony Cross
Article published on the 2008-05-11 Latest update 2008-05-28 09:53 TU
Rawalpindi, September 2007
There is evidence of the military almost everywhere in this city next-door to Islamabad, which is home to the military and secret service headquarters.
Serving and retired officers are housed in cantts, short for cantonments, and retired General Hamid Gul lives in a spacious and well-protected house in one of them.
Gul was head of the secret services, the Inter-Services Intelligence Agency (ISI) in the 1980s. In collaboration with US and other agencies, he armed and trained the mojahedin who fought the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan. During his time as ISI chief there was an rise in jihadi activity in Indian-ruled Kashmir.
But in September 2007, as politicians and lawyers face off against President and Chief of Staff Pervez Musharraf, he says that it is time for the military to get out of Pakistan's politics.
"This new-found freedom of the press and the judiciary, I think this is a gift to Pakistan," he says. "This is going to lead to the empowerment of people. Now the military has got to go back to barracks."
He is scathing about Musharraf's allies. Today's MPs are not independent, he says, "they're under the shadow of the army". But he hopes that "free and fair" elections will correct this state of affairs.
Gul is brutally frank in his criticism of Musharraf, whom he believes is on the brink of introducing martial law. "That's the only option left to him. If he's so greedy for power - and Americans are patting him on the back to go on and do it."
"I'm quite amazed, really," he says of Musharraf's determination to cling on to both of his jobs. "It was my job twice to profile him because I was once his instructor in the staff college and second time he was my subordinate, when he was a major-general. He served under me and I wrote reports on him. And good reports, too."
Back then Gul found the president-to-be pleasant and flexible. "I think it is fear that is driving him towards this and an unnecessary encouragement from the Americans."
But the general, who has plenty of experience of Americans, believes they may be rethinking their strategy. "They're very clever, they keep their intentions hidden," he says.
Most analysts think that Washington is pushing Musharraf to reach agreement with Benazir Bhutto, who is apparently seen as secular and Western-friendly. Gul thinks they may plump for Nawaz Sharif, who, he says, has emerged as "almost unmitigated number-one political figure in the country".
Gul is not against mixing religion and politics. Pakistan was born as a political-religious entity, he says. "They cannot be separated. In India and Pakistan, that is the lesson of history. If they [the religious parties] come to power, as long as they accept electoral politics, then there is no problem."
The general advises the US to rethink its international strategy, especially its military operations in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
"There is no light at the end of the tunnel that they will succeed," he says. "Tell me, are they succeeding? If they are not succeeding, then they must change direction."
The Taliban, who imposed a distinctly unsecular regime on Afghanistan, came out of madrassas and refugee camps in Pakistan, enjoying the patronage of the ISI. While criticising the Taliban's dispensation of summary justice, Gul says they did some "very good things", introducing "peace" and "justice" after the chaos of the civil war between the mojahedin factions he had himself backed.
But, he says, that was all after his retirement, and he was only responsible for the mojahedin, whom everybody, apart from the Russians, loved back then.
"The Americans, and let me tell you, French, German and all the free world which was afraid of the red menace," he says. "They were all helping us. If it was culpable and was a crime, then we were all together in that crime."
There's no mistaking Gul's bitterness, as he points to a lump of the Berlin Wall presented to him by the German government "with deepest respect to one who helped deliver the first blow". Now, says retired General Hamid Gul, the US and the European countries with whom he used to work won't give him a visa.